What are the properties of the cobbdouglas production. The cobb douglas function is widely used to represent production functions and also utility functions in economics. For the case of two inputs, the ces production function takes the following form. In most empirical studies relating to either industry or agriculture, the ces production function is used to know the extent of substitution possibilities between labour and capital. An assessment of ces and cobb douglas production functions 1 eric miller email. An isoquant is the implicit function relating l and k for a given q. The constant elasticity of substitution utility function.
Cobb douglas preferences are easy to use and therefore commonly used. In abstract terms, suppose that you want to maximise a function. Pdf we provide characterizations of preferences representable by a cobbdouglas utility function. Example of partial differentiation with cobbdouglas. I use it as an excuse to discuss some things we should be thinking about when using cobb douglas production functions. Douglas preferences are easy to use and therefore commonly used. Demand derived from cobbdouglas utility, interpretation.
The utility function used to generate the graph in cesutil98. For now we can say that this form was popularized several generations ago by the work of cobb and douglas, who argued that this loglog form fit productionunction data better than the competitors. To show the relationship between utility functions, indifference curves, and total utility curves. A cobb douglas production function is of the form ytk t. Utility function we employ a cobb douglas utility function as the debtors utility function of consumption and leisure as follows uc,l 1 a cal 1 a g 1 g, 0 0 g 6 1, 2 where g is the coef. Cobb douglas production and cost functions, calibration a consumer has a cobb douglas utility function and a linear budget constraint, with income m. For example, if the utility function is u xy then mrs y x this is a special case of the cobb douglas utility function, which has the form. The cobb douglas utility function leads to a set of demand functions in which demand for each good depends only on its own price. An assessment of ces and cobbsdouglas production functions. The cobb douglas production function is a particular form of the production function.
The case of a converging economy article pdf available in finance a uver 57910. The cd production functions possess a number of important properties which have made it widely useful in the analysis of economic theories. Exponential functions of this sort that are used to describe utility functions and production functions to be taken up later are called cobb douglas functions, though the term is sometimes reserved for the special case in which the exponents sum to one. Macroeconomics 2 lecture 2 labor and leisure choice. The cobbdouglas production function y alk is still today the most ubiquitous form in theoretical and empirical analyses of growth and productivity felipe and adams, 2005. Msc in economics for development macroeconomics for. With the key idea being that the exponents sum to 1 so that there is crs.
Using the same reasoning again, the problem does not ask for this, the total. We consider a consumer with cobbdouglas preferences. Optimal investment, consumption and leisure with an option. What is one way in which you could you describe crs nonmathematically. I studied the analytical approach to the cobbdouglas utility function at letourneau university there we did a lot of exercises on microeconomics too. The mrs and the cobbdouglas simon fraser university. The engel curve then describes how the demand changes with income 5. We use utility functions to derive demand curve, by choosing the mix of goods that maximises utility subject to a budget constraint 4. Thereby finding the marginal products of capital and labor. Constant elasticity of substitution production function. Monotonicity, convexity, perfect complements, substitutes and cobb douglas 4 solving the consumers problem. The presence of addictive effects does not alter the fact that goods with cobbdouglas preference are normal. Proportional response as iterated cobbdouglas drops.
Thus given any utility function, if we can transform it in an orderpreserving way, then the result of the transformation would represent the same preference as the original one. Exponential functions of this sort are commonly used by economists to describe production functions. Suppose that capital, labour and productivity are changing over time. Properties of the cobb douglas production function. Curves the collection of all indifference curves for a given preference relationcurves for a given preference relation is an indifference map. The utility function used above is an example of a so called cobb. One of the most common is the cobb douglas utility function, which has the form ux, y x a y 1 a.
This paper examines the nigerian economy from 1990 to 2009 and uses the. The indirect utility function is the value function of the ump. Try to draw the indi erence curves, they will look similarly to those of cobb douglas but the asymptotes will now be in x 1 1. Functional forms in consumer theory consider a utility.
I to really assess the model, add laborleisure choice. Aidiff i i lan indifference map is equivalent to a utility function. Making a log transformation of the utility function. It is easy to verify that the mrs 12 q 2 q 1 of this function is diminishing, as q 1 increases and q 2.
We use it to model the consumption of addictive goods. Utility maximization with a cobb douglas utility function duration. Intermediate microeconomics dirk bergemann, spring 2012 week of 122 128 1 lecture 5. For instance, consider a cobb douglas production function with constant returns to scale and labouraugmenting productivity. There are several classes of utility functions that are frequently used to generate demand functions. This is always true for cobb douglas utility but not true for all types of utility functions. In this case the marginal rate of substitution for the cobb douglas utility function is mrs. Pdf we provide characterizations of preferences representable by a cobb douglas utility function. We consider a consumer with cobb douglas preferences. Problems with solutions, intermediate microeconomics.
Cobb douglas this utility function is extremely common it. In turn, a utility function tells us the utility associated with each good x 2 x, and is denoted by ux 2 utility function ux represents an agents preferences if ux uy if and only if x utility function. What would be the interpretation of these coefficients in the regression is it just the change in output when the labor or capital share changes should the beta coefficients add up to 1, and if yes, are there. They are called cobb douglas functions, though the termis sometimes reserved for the special case in which the exponents sum to one. Try to draw the indi erence curves, they will look similarly to those of cobb douglas but the asymptotes will now be in x. Cobb douglas this utility function is extremely common it is given ac cording from economics 101 at university of new south wales. Before the chapter is over we will discuss ways of testing the relevance of this form for any particular situation.
Cobbdouglas and logarithm utility functions economics. With cobb douglas, quantity demanded of each good is a function. Homogeneous functions ucsbs department of economics. While still being quite tractable, with a minimum of parameters, it is more. Another common form for utility is the constant elasticity of substitution ces utility function. On the basis of the value of a, the form of production function cobb douglas or constant elasticity ces production function can be selected for the analysis. In economics, aproduction function represents the relationship between the output and the combination of factors, or inputs, used to obtain it. Lesson 231 the cobb douglas production function duration. Different values of the parameters b 1 and b 2 lead to different shapes of the indifference curves. A commonly used utility function is the cobb douglas utility function. Note that this function is similar to a cobb douglas function, if you take expux q l l1 x l l l. This utility function is very popular since it represents wellbehaved, i. Contents a measuring substitutability b elasticity of substitution under constant returns to scale c cobb douglas production functions d constant elasticity of substitution ces production functions e elasticities of substitution in multiinput cases a measuring substitutability let us now turn to the issue of measuring the degree of substitutability between any pair of factors. Utility function of the situation that one good is bad cite as.393 1406 69 763 1016 538 650 647 924 1411 89 1 579 576 628 510 373 578 1028 1329 949 176 996 828 175 456 242 114 1088 986 755 1033 456 631